In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. In the author-date method, the writer includes the author and date within the body of the paper and includes a corresponding reference in the Reference list. This method allows the reader to identify sources used in the paper by reviewing the author and date within the text of the paper, and then easily locate the corresponding reference in the alphabetical Reference list.
Create an in-text citation whenever you quote another work, or whenever you paraphrase another work in your own words.
If you are referring to an idea from another work (paraphrasing or summarizing) but NOT directly quoting the material, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
If you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. For example, (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).
The table below shows several examples of parenthetical and narrative citations.
|Author Type||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One Author||(Case, 2011)||Case (2011)|
|Two Authors||(Case & Daristotle, 2011)||Case and Daristotle (2011)|
|Three or More Authors||(Case et al., 2011)||Case et al. (2011)|
Group Author with Abbreviation
(World Health Organization [WHO], 2020)
World Health Organization (WHO, 2020)
|Group Author Without Abbreviation||(Yale University, 2020)||Yale University (2020)|
There are two ways to integrate sources into your assignment:
If you refer to the author's name in a sentence, you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation; instead, include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or the paraphrased section. For example:
Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).
If a quotation consists of fewer than 40 words, treat it as a short quotation:
If a quotation contains 40 words or more, treat it as a long (block) quotation:
When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (e.g., webpages, websites, some e-books), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Use any of the following approaches that will best help readers find the quotation:
If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear in the Reference list. For example:
(Jones, 2015; Smith, 2014).
(Beckworth, 2016; "Nursing," 2015).