This guide reflects the latest version (7th edition) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
APA stands for American Psychological Association and is a common formatting style for publications, including research papers, in the social sciences. APA style has unique formats for in-text citations and reference pages. Its style and guidelines increase the ease of reading comprehension for viewers as well as ensure consistent presentation of content and written material.
In APA, you must cite sources that you have paraphrased, quoted, or otherwise refer to in your research paper.
Cite your sources in two places:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), #-#. DOI
Bailey, N. W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.05.011
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), #-#. URL
Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed, add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.
Bai, H. (2009). Facilitating students' critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor's experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156-164. www.ncolr.org/jiol
Author, A. A. (Copyright Year). Title of book. Publisher. DOI or URL
Sheingate, A. D. (2016). Building a business of politics: The rise of political consulting and the transformation of American democracy. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592718003882
Want more citation help or examples? Choose one of the links below, or if you would like to use the most recent copy of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th Edition, 2020, stop by the Research Help Desk on the 2nd floor of the Knowledge Center.
All citations should be double-spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference list. A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
For sources found using Library Search or a database, use the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), which is a type of permalink assigned to journal articles published online. If you have both a permalink and a DOI for an article, use the DOI.
The "Permalink" button in Library Search is indicated by an icon made of two connected, gray links. With the large number of sources available online, it is common for citations to include a URL. It is important to note, however, that the URL you include for any of your citations should be a permanent URL (or permalink), one that will stay active past the time that you are on that webpage.