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Nevada Writers Hall of Fame: Sarah Winnemucca

Sarah Winnemucca

Tocmetoni ~ Sarah Winnemucca
Writers Hall of Fame 1993

Sarah Winnemucca Sarah Winnemucca (1844?-1891), a granddaughter of Paiute Chief Truckee and daughter of Chief Winnemucca, was born in the Humboldt River-Pyramid Lake region at a time of great change for the Northern Paiute Nation. Introduced to Caucasians at age six, she could speak five languages by age 14, including Spanish and several Indian dialects. She became fluent in English while living for awhile with the Ormsby family at Mormon Station (now Genoa, Nevada) and took the name "Sarah" during that time. In 1871, Winnemucca began working as an interpreter for the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Fort McDermitt on the Oregon border. She married her first husband, Lt. Edward C. Bartlett, that year. When that marriage ended, she rejoined her tribe at the Malheur Reservation in Oregon, where she worked as an interpreter and teacher's aid from 1875 to 1878. Her experiences with the U.S. Government, losing relatives during the 1878 Bannock War, and the forced relocation of the Northern Paiute people to various reservations compelled Winnemucca to dedicate the remainder of her life to bettering the lives of her people. Following an oral tradition, Winnemucca gave more than 400 speeches to gain support for the Paiutes. She went to Washington, D.C. in 1880, representing the Kuyuidika-a band of Paiutes that lived around Pyramid Lake, and met with President Rutherford Hayes and Secretary of the Interior Charles Schurz to lobby for the release of the Paiutes from confinement on the Yakama Reservation in Washington Territory. Later she founded an innovative, bilingual, non-government school for Native American children in Lovelock, Nevada.

Her autobiography, Life Among the Piutes, was the first ever written and published by a Native American woman. She is considered one of the most influential and charismatic Native American women in history. She died at Henry's Lake, Idaho, on October 14, 1891, thinking herself a failure because the U.S. Government broke its promises concerning her tribe. She was the first woman to be honored with a Nevada state historic marker. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York. Also that year, the Washoe County School District named the Sarah Winnemucca Elementary School in her honor. "It Can Be Done," a documentary prepared for the Nevada Experience program for Channel 5 PBS, was first broadcast in 1994.

 

In 1864, Congress established the National Statuary Hall in the Old Hall of the House of Representatives in the United States Capitol and authorized each state to contribute two statues of its distinguished citizens to the collection. Pursuant to Nevada Assembly Bill No. 267 of 2001, the Nevada Dept. of Cultural Affairs and the Nevada Women's History Project worked to have a statue of Sarah Winnemucca placed in the National Statuary Hall Collection in Washington, D.C. In April 2003, Nevada First Lady Dema Guinn invited the Nevada Women's History Project to hold a "Pink Tea" at the Governor's Mansion in Carson City to raise funds for the Sarah Winnemucca statue. Sculptor Benjamin Victor, the recipient of a Jean Ford Research Grant, was commissioned to create the bronze statue for the U. S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall. The dedication ceremony for the statue was held at the National Statuary Hall on March 9, 2005. The Spanish Springs Library in Sparks, Nevada, was presented with two statues of Winnemucca on October 30, 2005.

Name variations: Sara Winnemucca; Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins; Shellflower; Shell-Flower; Thocmetony; Tocmetone

Bibliography for Sarah Winnemucca

Nonfiction:

Life Among The Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. (reprint) Old West (Fall, 1965), pp. 49-96. [Available: University Archives: AC 0519]

Mann, Mrs. Horace, ed. Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1883. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H7]

Mann, Mrs. Horace, ed. Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. Foreword by Catherine S. Fowler. (Vintage West Series) Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1994. [Available: Knowledge Center, its Special Collections, Western Nevada College-Carson City, and Great Basin College-Elko: E 99 .P2 H7 1994]

[Mann, Mary, ed.]. Life among the Piutes. [Charleston, SC]: BiblioLife / [Pullman, WA]: Washington State University, [not before 2008]: Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H7 2008]

Mann, Mrs. Horace, ed. Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. [United States: CreateSpace, 2014].. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H7 2014]

Mann, Mrs. Horace, ed. Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1883. [Available: Knowledge Center, Reference Microforms (History of Women Collection): Microfilm C24, Reel 455, no. 3374]

Reproduction of 'Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims'. Bishop, CA: Chalfant Press, 1969. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 99 .P2 H7 1969; and at Great Basin College (Elko); Western Nevada Community College, Carson City]

Excerpts in Anthologies:

Berkove, Lawrence I., ed. The Sagebrush Anthology: Literature from the Silver Age of the Old West. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections, and Western Nevada College-Carson City: PS 561 .S24 2006]

Glotfelty, Cheryll, Ed. "Life among the Piutes (excerpt)." Literary Nevada: Writings from the Silver State. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2008; pp. 92-98. [Available: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center, its Special Collections, the Basque Library, Western Nevada College-Carson City, and Great Basin College: PS 571 .N3 L57 2008]

Hirschfelder, Arlene, ed. "The Council-Tent is Our Congress," in Native Heritage: Personal Accounts by American Indians, 1790 to the Present. New York: Macmillan, 1995. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 77 .N355 1995; and at Western NV Community College, Carson City campus]

Kilcup, Karen L., ed. Native American Women's Writing, c. 1800-1924. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 508 .I5 N374 2000]

Kilcup, Karen L. "Sarah Winnemucca (Thocmetony) c. 1844-1891." in The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 3rd & 4th eds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998 and 2002. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 507 .H35 1998 v. 2 and  PS 507 .H35 2002 v. 2]

Lyon, Thomas J., ed. The Literary West: An Anthology of Western American Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 561 .L58 1999; and at Western NV Community College, Fallon campus]

Miller, Susan Cummins, ed. A Sweet, Separate Intimacy: Women Writers of the American Frontier: 1800-1922. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 509 .F7 S84 2000; and at Western NV Community College-Carson City and Fallon]

Nabokov, Peter, ed. Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492-2000. rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1999. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 93 .N3 1999] and the Expanded 1991 ed. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 93 .N3 1991, and at Great Basin College, Elko; Western NV Community College, Carson City and Fallon campuses]

Perkins, Barbara, and Perkins, George, eds. Kaleidoscope: Stories of the American Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. [Available: Knowledge Center: PE 1127 .H5 K36 1993]

Peyer, Bernd C., ed. American Indian Nonfiction: an anthology of writings, 1760s-1930s. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, [2007]. [Available: Knowledge Center and Great Basin College-Elko: PS 153 .I52 A44 2007]

Reid, John B. and Ronald M. James, eds. Uncovering Nevada's Past: a Primary Source History of the Silver State. Reno: University of Nevada Press, [2004]. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections, Western Nevada College-Carson City, and Great Basin College-Elko: F 836 .U53 2004]

Riley, Patricia, ed. Growing Up Native American: An Anthology. New York: Morrow, 1993. (contains an excerpt from Life Among the Piutes). [Available: Knowledge Center: E 98 .C5 G76 1993 and in its Special Collections Dept.]

Ritchie, Joy and Ronald, Kate, eds. Available Means: An Anthology of Women's Rhetoric(s). (Pittsburgh Series in Composition, Literacy, and Culture). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. [Available: Knowledge Center: PN 6122 .A85 2001]

Schlissel, Lillian and Lavender, Catherine, comps. The Western Women's Reader. New York: Harper Perennial, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 508 .W7 W43 2000; and Great Basin College (Elko) and Western NV Community College, Fallon campus]

Smith, Sidonie and Julia Watson, eds. Before They Could Vote: American Women's Autobiographical Writing, 1819-1919. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, [2006]. [Available: Knowledge Center: HQ 1412 .B44 2006]

Ward, Jean M., and Maveety, Elaine A., eds. Pacific Northwest Women, 1815-1925: Lives, Memories, and Writings. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 1995. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 570 .P33 1995]

Biographical Sources & Critical Response:

Adams, D. W. "Sarah Winnemucca." (book review) in Journal of American History. Vol. 89, no. 3 (Dec. 2002), pp. 1082-1083.

Anderson, Eric G. "Mary Austin, Sarah Winnemucca, and the Problems of Authority" in American Indian Literature and the Southwest: Contexts and Dispositions. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999; pp. 112-132. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 153 .I52 A49 1999; and at Western NV Community College, Carson City and Fallon campuses]

"Artists sought to design U.S. Capitol statue." Reno Gazette-Journal (July 26, 2003) p. C2. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

Avery, Susan. Extraordinary American Indians. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 89 .A88 1992]

Bailey, J. W. "Sarah Winnemucca of the Northern Paiutes." Historian (1984) Vol. 46, no. 4, p. 638-639. [Available: Knowledge Center: D1 .H217 1984]

Baum, Bruce and Duchess Harris, eds. Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 184 .A1 R32452 2009]

Bloom, Harold, ed. Native American Women Writers. (Series: Women Writers of English and Their Works). Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1998. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 153 .I52 N38 1998; and at Western NV Community College, Carson City campus; also available as an electronic book via the Library web site]

Boardman, Kathleen and Gioia Woods, eds. Western Subjects: Autobiographical Writing in the North American West. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2004. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: PS 271 .W47 2004]

Bolton, Linda. Facing the Other: Ethical Disruption and the American Mind. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, [2004]. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 302.1 .B65 2004]

Brumble, H. David. American Indian Autobiography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 89.5 B78 1988]

Calloway, Colin G. First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 77 .C14 2004]

Canfield, Gae Whitney. Sarah Winnemucca of the Northern Paiutes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 99 .P2 H722 1983; and at Great Basin College (Elko); Western Nevada Community College, Carson City and Fallon campuses]

Canfield, Gae Whitney. "Sarah Winnemucca of the Northern Paiutes," in Three American Indian Women. New York: MJF Books, 1995. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: E 98 .W8 T57 1995]

Carlson, Helen S. Nevada Place Names: A Geographical Dictionary. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 1974. [Available: Knowledge Center: Research: REF F 839 .C37; and also at Western Nevada Community College-Carson City, Douglas, and Fallon campuses; and Great Basin College, Elko] p. 160-161.

Carpenter, Cari M. and Carolyn Sorisio, eds. The Newspaper Warrior: Sarah Winemucca Hopkins's Campaign for American Indian Rights, 1864-1891. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. [Available: Knowledge Center and Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H6999 2015]

Carpenter, Cari M. Seeing Red: Anger, Femininity, and the American Indian of Nineteenth-Century Sentimental Literature(dissertation). University of Michigan, 2002.

Carpenter, Cari M. "Tiresias Speaks: Sarah Winnemucca's Hybrid Selves and Genres." in Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers. (2002), Vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 71-80. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 149 .L43 2002]

Casper, Scott E. and Long, Lucinda M., eds. Moving Stories: Migration and the American West, 1850-2000. Halcyon Series. Reno and Las Vegas: Nevada Humanities Committee, 2001. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections, Western Nevada College-Carson City and Fallon: JF 6565 .M675 2001; and Knowledge Center's Government Publications: 29-H88 7:2001]

Clancy, Gwendolyn. In Sarah's Footprints [documentary film]. Carson City, NV: Nevada Dept. of Cultural Affairs, 2006. [Available: Knowledge Center's Multimedia Center: DVD3026; and its Special Collections: E 99 .P2 I44 2006]

Clancy, Gwendolyn. "Sarah Winnemucca: The Dream Fulfilled" [videorecording]. (Exploring Nevada series). Nevada: Dept. of Cultural Affairs, 2005. [VHS and DVD]

Cleere, Jan. More Than Petticoats: Remarkable Nevada Women. (Series: More Than Petticoats) [n.p.]: Guilford, CT: Twodot, 2005; pp. 26-38.

Clifton, Guy. You Know You're a Nevadan If ... II. Reno, NV: Nevada Humanities, 2004. p. 42. [Available: Knowledge Center: PN 6231 .N3 C553 2004]

Convis, Charles L. Native Women. (Series: True Tales of the Old West, Vol. 3). Carson City, NV: Pioneer Press, 1996. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: E 98 .W8 C66 1996; and at Great Basin College, Elko]

Cooper, Michaela B. Voice, Silence and Authority in Autobiographical Criticism: Reading Margaret Fuller, Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins and Alice James (dissertation). George Washington University, 1997.

Corbusier, Fanny Dunbar. Recollections of Her Life in the Army, 1918. (Manuscript materials re: Ft. McDermitt, NV and the Paiutes). [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: 99-70]

Creel, Lorenzo Dow. Papers, 1875-1945. (Manuscript materials include photographs of Native Americans and U. S. Indian Service records) [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: 82-01].

Danneberg, Julie. Amidst the Gold Dust: Women Who Forged the West. Golden, CO:  Fulcrum Resources, 2001.

Dockstader, Frederick J. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977. pp. 337-339. [Available: Knowledge Center, Reference: REF E 89 D55]

"Documentary explores the life of Sarah Winnemucca." Reno Gazette-Journal (Nov. 20, 2006) P. E10. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

"Donor Advised Grants: Jean Ford Research Grant." Nevada Women's Fund News. (2004), pp. 10-11.

Druke, M. A. "Chief Sarah: Fight for Indian Rights- Morrison, DN (review)" in Journal of the West (1981), Vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 73-74. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 591 .A1 J5 1981]

Elbert, Monika M., et al, eds. Reinventing the Peabody Sisters. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, [2006]. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 147 .R45 2006]

Ellis, Clyde. "Sarah Winnemucca [review]." The Western Historical Quarterly. (Spring 2002) Vol. 33, no. 1; p. 73. (review of Sally Zanjani's biography)

Endres, Stacy. "Authors to Put Sarah Winnemucca's Life in Historical Perspective." [unidentified Nevada newspaper; available: University Archives: AC 0519]

"Exploring Nevada Focuses on Statue." Reno Gazette-Journal (May 25, 2010), p. B2.

Fischer, Christiane, ed. Let Them Speak for Themselves: Women in the American West, 1849-1900. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1977; and a 1990 reprint. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections, Western Nevada College-Carson City: HQ 1410 .L39 1977 and the 1990 reprint in the Knowledge Center: HQ 1410 .L39 1990]

Ford, Jean; Glass, Betty J.; and Gould, Martha B., eds. Women in Nevada History: An Annotated Bibliography of Published Sources. Reno, NV: Nevada Women's History Project, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: HQ 1438 .N3 W66 2000; Truckee Meadows Community College; Western Nevada Community College, Carson City & Fallon campuses]

Ford, Victoria. "Sarah Winnemucca." Nevada Women's History Project News. (Fall 2000), pp. 7-8.

Ford, Victoria and Janet E. White (2006). Sarah Winnemucca. In: M. A. Duval (Ed). Skirts that Swept the Desert Floor: One Hundred Biographical Profiles of Nevada Women in History (pp. 204-205). Vol. 1. Las Vegas, NV: Stephens Press. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 840 .S65 2006]

Fowler, Catherine S. "Sarah Winnemucca (review)." in American Indian Culture and Research Journal. (2002), Vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 172-173. [Available online in the Wilson OmniFile database via the Library web site]

Fowler, Catherine S. "Sarah Winnemucca." in Encyclopedia of North American Indians. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996, pp. 684-685. [Available: Online via the Library web site and in print at Knowledge Center, Research: REF E 76.2 .E53 1996; also at Great Basin College, Elko; and WNC: Carson City, Douglas, and Fallon campuses]

Fowler, Catherine S. "Two Native Daughters of Substance/I'll Go and Do More: Sarah Winnemucca and Annie Dodge Wauneka (review)." in Journal of American Ethnic History. Vol. 22, no. 1 (Fall 2002), pp. 104-106. [Available in the Academic Search Premier database via the Library web site]

"Full-size replica of statue to be dedicated at Capitol." Reno Gazette-Journal. (March 24, 2005), p. A2. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

Garceau-Hagen, Dee, ed. Portraits of Women in the American West. New York: Routledge, 2005. [Available: Knowledge Center: CT 3262 .W37 P67 2005 and online for UNR-affiliated users]

Gardner, Sheila. "'Pink Tea' Aims to Get Sarah Winnemucca in the U.S. Capitol." Reno Gazette-Journal. (April 21, 2003)

Gaye, KimMarie Pozar. Thocmetony's Tales (Website)

Gehm, Katherine. Sarah Winnemucca: Most Extraordinary Woman of the Paiute Nation. Phoenix, AZ: O'Sullivan Woodside, 1975. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H794]

Georgi-Findlay, Brigitte. "The Frontiers of Native American Women's Writing: Sarah Winnemucca's Life Among the Piutes" in New Voices in Native American Literary Criticism. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1993. [Available: Knowledge Center: PM 155 .N48 1993]

Glotfelty, Cheryll.  "State Pieces in the U.S. Regions Puzzle: Nevada and the Problem of Fit" in Regionalism and the Humanities. Edited by Timothy R. Mahoney and Wendy J. Katz. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008; pp. 237-250. [Available: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center: E 179.5 .R44 2008]

Gray, Susan. E. "Voices of American Indian Assimilation and Resistance: Helen Hunt Jackson, Sarah Winnemucca, and Victoria Howard (review)." Western Historical Quarterly (Autumn 2002) Vol. 33, no. 3; pp. 359-360.

Hardy, Gayle J. American Women Civil Rights Activists: Biobibliographies of 68 Leaders, 1825-1992. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993. [Available: Knowledge Center: JC 599 U5 H273 1993]

Haupt, Carol M. The Image of the American Indian Female in the Biographical Literature and Social Studies Textbooks of the Elementary Schools (dissertation). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, 1984.

Head, Judith. "Sarah Winnemucca," in America's Daughters: 400 Years of American Women. Glendale, CA: Perspective Pub., 2003. [Available: Knowledge Center: HQ 1410 .H4 1999]

Hedrick, Georgia. "Beyond Pocahontas: Sarah's Time." Creative Classroom (September/October, 1995). [Available: University Archives: AC 0519]

Hedrick, Georgia. Georgia Hedrick Collection on Sarah Winnemucca. (Manuscript materials include correspondence related to efforts to have a northern Nevada school named after Sarah Winnemucca). [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: 93-67]

Hedrick, Georgia. "Sarah Lives" (a song). [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: 93-67]

Hedrick, Georgia. Super Sarah (a play). [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: 93-67]

Heinemann, Sue. The New York Public Library Amazing Women in American History: A Book of Answers for Kids. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1998. [Available: Knowledge Center: HQ 1410 .H43 1998]

Hoke, Janice. "Winnemucca Descendant to Attend Statue Ceremony." reprint in Canku Ota (Many Paths): An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America. (May 18, 2002), no. 61.

Hoover, Sandi. "Sarah Winnemucca statue replica tograce state Capitol." Reno Gazette-Journal (April 5, 2005), p. A3. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

It Can Be Done: Sarah Winnemucca (videorecording; "Nevada Experience", television program; 501). Reno, Nev. : Channel 5 Public Broadcasting, 1994. [Available: Knowledge Center, Multimedia Center: Videocassette V06242]

Iverson, P. "Winnemucca, Sarah of the Northern Paiutes - Canfield, GW (review)" in Journal of the West (1985), Vol. 24, no. 2, p. 116. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 591 .A1 J5 1985]

Jacobson, L. "Sarah Winnemucca" in New England Quarterly. (Dec. 2002), Vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 684-688. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 1 .N62 2002]

Jacobson, L. "Voices of the American Indian Assimilation and Resistance: Helen Hunt Jackson, Sarah Winnemucca and Victoria Howard." in New England Quarterly: A Historical Review of New England Life and Letters (Dec. 2002), Vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 684-688. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 1 .N62 2002]

Jespersen, Thora Christine. Engendering Adventure: Men, Women and the American 'Frontier' (dissertation). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, 1997.

Jespersen, T. Christine. "Negotiating Womanhood through Frontier Adventure in Life Among the Piutes" in The Image of the Frontier in Literature, the Media, and Society. Pueblo, CO: Univ. of Southern Colorado, 1997; pp. 185-188. (Selected papers from the 1997 conference of the Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery) [Available: Knowledge Center: F 596 .S62 1997]

Karttunen, Frances E. Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides, and Survivors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994. [Available: Knowledge Center: P 306.9 .K37 1994]

Kleist, Jacquelynn. "Sara Winnemucca's Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims as Captivity Narrative," in The Idea of the West. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.  Special issue of The CEA Critic, vol. 75, no. 2, (July 2013).  [Available: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center: PE 1011 .C69 2013 and online via Project Muse for UNR-affiliated patrons]

Kloss, Doris. Sarah Winnemucca. Series: Story of an American Indian. Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, [1981]. Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H724 1981]

Knack, M. C. "Sarah Winnemucca." Montana: The Magazine of Western History. (Spring 2002) Vol. 52, no. 1; pp. 88-89. [Available: Knowledge Center: F726 .M74

Knight, Denise D., ed. Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 217 .W64 N56 1997]

Krupat, Arnold, ed. New Voices in Native American Literary Criticism. (Smithsonian Series of Studies in Native American Literatures). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. [Available: Knowledge Center: PM 155 .N48 1993]

Lankford, Scott. Tahoe Beneath the Surface: the Hidden Stories of America's Largest Mountain Lake. Berkeley, CA: Heyday; 2010. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections, and Western Nevada College-Carson City and Fallon: F 868 .T2 L364 2010]

Lape, Noreen G. "I would rather be with my people, but not to live with them as they life": Cultural Liminality and Double Consciousness in Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins's Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims." in The American Indian Quarterly (Summer 1998), Vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 259-279. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 75 A547 1998 and online in the Academic Search Premier database via the Library web site]

Lape, Noreen G. West of the Border: Cultural Liminality in the Literature of the Western American Frontiers (dissertation). Temple University, 1996.

Lape, Noreen G. West of the Border: The Multicultural Literature of the Western American Frontiers. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 271 .L37 2000; and at Western NV Community College, Carson City campus]

Liberty, Margot, ed. American Indian Intellectuals. (Series: Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, 1976). St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1978. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 89 .A47]

Lieser, Julia F. Famous American Indians and Tribes. (Series: Youth Publications, Saturday Evening Post). Indianapolis, IN: Saturday Evening Post, 1977. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: E 77 .L7]

Loomis, Patricia. "Unfortunate Era At Historic S.J. School." San Jose News (November 14, 1975), p. 83. [Available: University Archives: AC 0519]

Lopez-Bowlan, Ellie. "Native icon's great works still affect Nevadans." Reno Gazette-Journal. (April 27, 2005), p. A7. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilm: N9j]

Lukens, Margaret A. Creating Cultural Spaces: The Pluralist Project of American Women Writers, 1843-1902 (Margaret Fuller, Harriet Jacobs, Sara Winnemucca, and Zitkala-Sa). (doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, 1991. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: PS 151.L75 1991a]

Lukens, Margo. "Her 'Wrongs and Claims': Sarah Winnemucca's Strategic Narratives of Abuse." Wicazo Sa Review. (Spring 1998) Vol. 13, no. 1; pp. 93-109.

Lyndgaard, Kyhl D. "Sarah Goes to Washington." UNR Graduate Student Association Paper Competition. (Spring 2008).

Makley, Matt. "Sarah Winnemucca: Prominent Paiute leader," in Schumacher, Geoff, ed. Nevada 150 Years in the Silver State. Las Vegas: Stephens Press, 2014; p. 23.

Maples, Donna. "Let Them Speak for Themselves: Women in the American West, 1849-1900 [review]." Western American Literature. Vol. 26, no. 2 (Summer 1991), pp. 167-168.

McClure, Andrew S. "Sarah Winnemucca: [Post] Indian Princess and Voice of the Paiutes." in MELUS (Summer 1999), Vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 29-51. [Available online in JSTOR via the Library web site]

McClure, Andrew W. 'Survivance' in Native American Literature: Form and Representations (dissertation). University of New Mexico, 1998.

"McDermitt Given Three Historical Nevada Markers." (June 10, 1971) [unidentified Nevada newspaper]

McRobbie, Linda Rodriguez. Princesses Behaving Badly: Real Stories from History -- Without the Fairy-Tale Endings. Philadelphia: Quirk Books, [2013]. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: D 107.3 .M42 2013]

Mergen, Bernard. At Pyramid Lake. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2014. [Available: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: F 847 .W3 M47 2014]

Miller, Brandon Marie. Women of the Frontier: 16 Tales of Trailblazing Homesteaders, Entrepreneurs, and Rabble-Rousers. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2013. [Available as an e-book for UNR-affiliated users]

Miller, Geralda. "Celebrating Sarah Winnemucca: Statue honors Paiute woman who led fight for equal rights."Reno Gazette-Journal (March 9, 2005), p. A1, A4. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

Miller, Hildy and Lillian Bridwell-Bowles, eds. Rhetorical Women: Roles and Representations. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, [2005]. [Available: Knowledge Center: PR 111 .R48 2005]

Miller, Susan Cummins, ed. A Sweet, Separate Intimacy: Women Writers of the American Frontier, 1800-1922. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 509 .F7 S84 2000]

Milner, Clyde A., II, et al, eds. Oxford History of the American West. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 591 .O97 1996]

Morrison, Dorothy N. Chief Sarah: Sarah Winnemucca's Fight for Indian Rights. New York: Atheneum, 1980. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 99 .P2 H725; and the 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1990. [Available: Great Basin College (Elko)]

Morrow, Mary Frances. Sarah Winnemucca. Milwaukee: Raintree Publishers, 1990. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: E 99 .P2 G726 1990]

Morrow, Mary Frances. Sarah Winnemucca, Paiute. Milwaukee : Raintree Publishers, 1996.

Moynihan, Ruth and Armitage, Susan, eds. So Much To Be Done: Women Settlers on the Mining and Ranching Frontier. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1990. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections and DeLaMare Library: F 596 S68 1990; also at WNC, Carson City and Fallon campuses]

Moynihan, Ruth; Cynthia Russert & Laurie Crumpacker, eds. Second to None: A Documentary History of American Women. Vol. II: From 1865 to the Present. (two unnumbered pages between pages 50 - 51). [Available: Knowledge Center: MARS HQ 1410 .S43 1993 v. 2]

Mulford, Karen. Trailblazers: Twenty Amazing Western Women. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland, 2001.

"Nellie Shaw Harner '65." UNR Times (September-October, 1985) Vol. 3, no. 1; p. 23. [Available: University Archives: AC 0519]

Nelson, Pam. "Across the Road: Fallon Indian Day School (1908-1943) and the Baptist Indian Mission." In Focus. Vol. 14. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: F 847 .C4 I527; and Reference Microforms: Microfilm S0376]

"Nevada Historical Society presents Sarah Winnemucca Documentary." Reno Gazette-Journal (Nov. 16, 2006) [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

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Ohrn, Deborah G. "Sarah Winnemucca," in Ashby, Ruth and Ohrn, Deborah, eds. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995; pp. 135-137. [Available: Knowledge Center: HQ 1121 H47 1995]

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer. The Piutes: Second Report of the Model School of Sarah Winnemucca, 1886-87. Cambridge, [MA]: J. Wilson and Son, 1887. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 P43 1887]

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer. Sarah Winnemucca's Practical Solution of the Indian Problem. (Series: History of Women). Cambridge: Wilson & Son, 1886. [Available: Knowledge Center, Reference Microforms: Microfilm C24, Reel 474, no. 3549; and in Special Collections: E 97 .P35]

Porter, Carrie Townley. "Sarah Winnemucca Statue Project Archives." NWH News (August 2005) Vol. 10, no. 3, p. 6.

Powell, Malea D. 'I Write These Words with Blood and Bone': Two Nineteenth Century American Indian Intellectuals and a Rhetoric of Survivance (dissertation). Miami University, 1998.

Powell, Malea. "Rhetorics of Survivance: How American Indians Use Writing." in College Composition and Communication. (2002), Vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 396-434. [Available: Knowledge Center: PE 1001 .C6 2002]

Pritzker, Barry. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000; p. 224. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 76.2 .P75 1998]

Ray, Deborah Kogan. Paiute Princess: the story of Sarah Winnemucca. New York: Frances Foster Books/Farrar Straus Giroux, 2012. [Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 R39 2012]

Reno, Mona, comp. "The Case of Sarah Winnemucca," special file 268: National Archives and Records Administration correspondence during the Bannock Indian War, 1877-1885. [Available: Knowledge Center Government Publications: 29-C91L 9:C37, Western Nevada College-Fallon and Great Basin College-Elko: E 99 .P2 H723 2007]

Reno, Ramona L., comp. "It can be done": Nevada Presents the Sarah Winnemucca statue to the people of the United States. Silver City, NV: Blackberry Rhubarb Press, 2012. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H7255 2012]

Richey, Elinor. Eminent Women of the West. Berkeley, CA: Howell-North Books, 1975. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 591 .R48]

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Rose, Mary. "Sarah Winnemucca: A Voice of Reason and Compassion in Difficult Times." Washington: The Columbian. (Jan. 31, 1999)

Rosinsky, Natalie M. Sarah Winnemucca: scout, activist, and teacher. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point books, [2006]. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections: E 99 .P2 R67 2006]

Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. New York: Routledge, 1998. [Available: Knowledge Center: P 306 .R68 1998]

Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown. "Early Native American Women Authors: Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, Sarah Winnemucca, S. Alice Callahan, E. Pauline Johnson, and Zitkala-Sa." in Kilcup, Karen, ed. Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Critical Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 217 .W64 N57 1998]

Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown. "Three Nineteenth-Century American Indian Autobiographers" in Redefining American Literary History. New York: Modern Language Assn. of Amer., 1990. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 153 .M56 R4 1990]

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Sands, Kathleen Mullen. "Indian Women's Personal Narrative: Voices Past and Present" in American Women's Autobiography: Fea(s)ts of Memory. Madison, WI: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1992. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 366 .A88 A48 1992]

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"Sarah Winnemucca." from Women's Biographies. Reno, NV: Nevada Women's History Project. (Web resource)

Sarah Winnemucca: A Capital Figure (videorecording). Dir. Bob Harmon. (Series: Exploring Nevada). Carson City, NV: NV Dept. of Cultural Affairs, 2002. [Available: Knowledge Center, Multimedia Center: Videocassette V11855]

"Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins (Thocmetony, "Shell Flower") (1844-91)." from Voices From the Gaps: Women Writers of Color. University of Minnesota (Web resource)

Sarah Winnemucca Statue Dedication [videorecording]. West Lafayette, IN: National Cable Satellite Corp., 2005. [Available: Knowledge Center, Multimedia Center: DVD 1862; V12296]

Sarah Winnemucca statue, Nevada State Capitol. [Carson City, NV.]: Nevada Women's History Project : Nevada Dept. of Cultural Affairs, [2005?}: Available: Knowledge Center Government Publications: 29-C91 9:Sa71x]

"Sarah Winnemucca (Thocmetony (Shell Flower)), 1844-1891." Native American Authors Project. The Internet Public Library.

"Sarah Winnemucca to be Honored with Statue." Las Vegas Review-Journal (March 8, 2002) [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N8]

Schweninger, Lee. "Only an Indian Woman: Sarah Winnemucca and the Heroic Protagonist" in Native American Women in Literature and Culture. Porto, Portugal: Fernando Pessoa, 1997. [Available: Knowledge Center: PN 56.5 .W64 N37 1997]

Scordato, Ellen. Sarah Winnemucca: Northern Paiute Writer and Diplomat. (Series: North American Indians of Achievement) New York: Chelsea House, 1992. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: E 99 .P2 H727 1992]

Senier, Siobhan. 'That Is What I Said to Him': American Women's Narratives about Indians, 1879-1934 (dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.

Senier, Siobhan. Voices of American Indian Assimilation and Resistance: Hellen Hunt Jackson, Sarah Winnemucca, and Victoria Howard. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. [Available: Knowledge Center and its Special Collections, and Great Basin College-Elko: E 98 .C89 S46 2001]

Short, Gretchen K. Domestic Spheres: Home and Homeland in Nineteenth-Century United States Domestic Fiction(dissertation). University of California at Irvine, 2000.

Shull, Jodie A. Voice of the Paiutes: a story about Sarah Winnemucca. Minneapolis, MN Millbrook Press, [2007]: Available: Knowledge Center's Special Collections: E 99 .P2 S48 2007]

Smith, Ken. "A Woman of the People: Sarah Winnemucca's School of Hard Knocks." in Raw Deal: Horrible and Ironic Stories of Forgotten Americans. New York: Blast Books, 1998. pp. 198-211. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 176 .S65 1998]

Sonneborn, Liz. A to Z of Native American Women. New York: Facts on File, 1998. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 98 W8 S65 1998, and at WNC-Fallon]

Staff Report. "Paiutes honor elder's memory: Frank Winnemucca's Funeral." Reno Gazette-Journal (February 29, 2008), p. A1.

Stefoff, Rebecca. Nevada. 2nd ed. (Celebrate the States). New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.  [Available: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center's Special Collections: F 841.3 .S72 2010]

Stephens, Autumn. "Sarah Winnemucca (1844-1891) Return of the Native," in Wild Women: Crusaders, Curmudgeons and Completely Corsetless Ladies in the Otherwise Virtuous Victorian Era. Boston: Conari Press, 1992. pp. 96-97.

Strange, William C. "Story, Take Me Home: Instances of Resonance in Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins' Life Among the Piutes." pp. 184-194 in Entering the 90s: The North American Experience: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior University, October 27-28, 1989. Sault Ste. Marie: 1991. [Available: Knowledge Center: E 76 .N38 1987]

Stremlau, R. "Sarah Winnemucca" in Pacific Northwest Quarterly (Spring 2002), Vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 101-102. [Available: Knowledge Center: F 852 .P23 2002]

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Tisinger, Danielle. "Textual Performance and the Western Frontier: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins's Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims." in Western American Literature (Summer 2002), Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 171-194. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 271 .W46 2002]

Truman, Margaret. Women of Courage. New York: Morrow, 1976. [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: CT 3260 .T79]

"2 Statues of Sarah Winnemucca to be Presented to Spanish Springs." Reno Gazette-Journal "Sparks Today." (Oct. 21, 2005) p. 3. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

"Two Statues to be Dedicated at Spanish Springs Library" Reno Gazette-Journal "Sparks Today." (Oct. 28, 2005) p. 2. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

"U. S. Capitol to display Winnemucca statue." Reno Gazette-Journal (March 2, 2005), p. A2. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1807-1904. Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1964. [Available: Knowledge Center Microfilm: G0102 (Index); KC Government Publications Microfilm: G0102]

Venuto, Rochelle R. Indian Authorities: Race, Gender and Empire in mid-Nineteenth Century United States-Indian Narratives(dissertation). University of California at Santa Cruz, 1998.

Walker, Cheryl. Indian Nation: Native American Literature and Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms. (Series: New Americanists). Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997. [Available: Knowledge Center: PS 153 .I52 W35 1997]

Waters, Richard K. Cross Roads: Native American Writers Confront Christianity (dissertation). University of New Mexico, 2001.

West, Elliott. "Sarah Winnemucca, Chief Joseph, and native America's dilemma," in Etulain, Richard W., ed. Western Lives: a Biographical History of the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004. [Available: Knowledge Center, Western Nevada College-Carson City, and Great Basin College-Elko: F 590.5 .W47 2004]

Wheat, Margaret M. Papers, 1879-1981. (Manuscript materials). [Available: Knowledge Center, Special Collections: 83-24].

Wiget, Andrew, ed. Dictionary of Native American Literature. (Series: Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Vol. 1815). New York: Garland, 1994. [Available: Knowledge Center, Reference: REF PM 155 .D53 1994; and at Great Basin College (Elko) and Western NV Community College, Carson City and Fallon campuses]

"Winnemucca program on tap Sunday." Reno Gazette-Journal (March 25, 2006) p. E1. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

Woods, Gioia Elisa. Making Place in Western American Autobiography: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins, William Kittredge, Lorena Hays, and Maxine Hong Kingston. (dissertation). Reno: University of Nevada, Reno, 1999. [Available: Knowledge Center: PE 3999 .W663 1999; and online in the Dissertation Abstracts database via the Library web site; also in Reference microfilm: 4434]

The World Almanac Biographical Dictionary. New York: World Almanac, 1990. [Available: Knowledge Center: CT 103 .W66 1990]

Wunder, DeLinda Day. Performing Indianness: Strategic Utterance in the Works of Sarah Winnemucca, Zitkala-Sa, and Mourning Dove (dissertation). University of Colorado at Boulder, 1997.

Zanjani, Sally Springmeyer. Sarah Winnemucca. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001. [Available: Knowledge Center, its Special Collections, Great Basin College-Elko, and Western Nevada College-Fallon: E 99 .P2 H699 2001]

Zanjani, Sally. "Voices of American Indian Assimilation and Resistance: Helen Hunt Jackson, Sarah Winnemucca, and Victoria Howard (review)." Pacific Historical Review (May 2002) Vol. 71, no. 2; pp. 336-337.

Zanjani, Sally. "Winnemucca statue shows Nevada's pride." (Letter to the Editor) Reno Gazette-Journal (January 19, 2005), p. A7. [Available: Knowledge Center, Research Microfilms: N9j]

Please direct questions about this page to Betty Glass.